Solution manual for Fraud Examination 5th Edition by Albrecht
Solution manual for Fraud Examination 5th Edition W. Steve Albrecht, Chad O. Albrecht, Conan C. Albrecht, Mark F. Zimbleman, Mark F. Zimbelman ISBN: 9781305079144
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THE NATURE OF FRAUD
- Fraud always involves deception, confidence, and trickery. The following is one of the most common definitions of fraud:
- “Fraud is a generic term, and embraces all the multifarious means which human ingenuity can devise, which are resorted to by one individual, to get an advantage over another by false representations. No definite and invariable rule can be laid down as a general proposition in defining fraud, as it includes surprise, trickery, cunning and unfair ways by which another is cheated. The only boundaries defining it are those which limit human knavery.”
Fraud is deception that includes the following elements:
- A representation
- About a material point
- That is false,
- Intentionally or recklessly so,
- Which is believed
- And acted upon by the victim
- To the victim’s damage.
- Fraud affects individuals, consumers, and organizations in various ways. Fraud usually lowers organizations’ net income dollar for dollar. To recover these costs, consumers and individuals must pay more for goods and services. For example, health care fraud and insurance fraud increase premiums that individuals must pay. The cost of fraud eventually reaches every part of the economy, including individuals, consumers, and organizations.
The 2008 study by The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners estimates that U.S. organizations lose roughly 7 percent of their annual revenues to fraud. Applied to the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP), this 7 percent figure translates to approximately $994 billion in fraud losses.
- Employee Embezzlement: In this type of fraud, employees deceive their employers by taking company assets. Embezzlement can be either direct or indirect.
- Management Fraud: Distinguished from other types of fraud both by the nature of the perpetrators and by the method of deception. In its most common form, management fraud is deception perpetrated by top management’s manipulation of financial statements. The victims of management fraud are typically stockholders, lenders, and others who rely on financial statement information.
- Investment Scams or Consumer Scams: A type of fraud that is perpetrated when fraudulent and usually worthless investments are sold to unsuspecting investors.
- Vendor Fraud: Perpetrated by vendors; comes in two main varieties: fraud perpetrated by vendors acting alone, and fraud perpetrated through collusion between buyers and vendors. Vendor fraud usually results in an overcharge for purchased goods, the shipment of inferior goods, or the nonshipment of goods even though payment was made.
- Customer Fraud: Usually involves customers not paying for goods purchased, getting something for nothing, or deceiving organizations into giving them something they should not have.
- Criminal law is the branch of law that deals with offenses of a public nature. Criminal laws generally deal with offenses against society as a whole. Violators of criminal laws are prosecuted either federally or by a state for violating a statute that prohibits some type of activity.
- Civil law is the body of law that provides remedies for violations of private rights. Civil law deals with rights and duties between individuals. The purpose of a civil lawsuit is to compensate for harm done to an individual. Unlike criminal cases, where juries consist of 12 jurors, juries in civil cases may have as few as six jurors, and the verdict of the jury need not be unanimous. Additionally, judges often hear civil cases instead of juries. In civil lawsuits, plaintiffs must only prove their case by the “preponderance of the evidence.” In other words, there need be only slightly more evidence supporting the plaintiff than supporting the defendant.
- Charles Ponzi was successful for several reasons. First, Charles Ponzi built confidence in his scheme by giving early investors a return on their initial investments. Second, Charles Ponzi presented his coupon scheme in a way that was easy for investors to understand. Although the coupon scheme never made any real profits, investors believed that it had. Third, Ponzi was extremely talented at manipulating victims’ emotions. Ponzi was able to capitalize on individuals’ greed. When people began to see their friends and family members receive dividends from investments, they too wanted in on the investment scam.
- As the number of frauds and the amounts of fraud losses increase, so do the opportunities for successful careers in fraud prevention and detection. In Chapter 1, we have listed five areas in fraud fighting that will be rewarding and have high demand in the future. They include the following:
- Government: This includes FBI, postal inspectors, Criminal Investigation Division of the IRS, S. Marshals, inspectors general of various governmental agencies, state investigators, and law enforcement officials.
- CPA Firms, Forensic Accounting Firms, Litigation Support Firms, and Law Firms: These individuals will conduct investigations, support firms in litigation, do bankruptcy-related fraud work, serve as expert witnesses, consult in fraud prevention and detection, and provide other fee-based work.
- Corporations: Individuals who work for corporations will prevent, detect, and investigate fraud within a company. This category includes internal auditors, corporate security officers, and in-house legal counsels.
- Lawyers: Lawyers will defend or prosecute organizations in civil and criminal cases.
- Consulting: University Professors, Hospital Management, Technology Corporations, etc. People who work in these areas will consult, serve as expert witnesses, extract evidence from computers and servers, investigate public records, and serve on grand or trial juries.
- When employee fraud takes place, employees deceive their employers by taking company assets. Management fraud is distinguished from employee fraud and other types of fraud in that top management typically commits it to deceive financial statement users. Employee fraud is usually committed against an organization, whereas management fraud is perpetrated on behalf of an organization.
- As the numbers of frauds committed and the total dollar amounts lost from fraud increase, the demand for careers to prevent and detect such fraud will increase. In fact, a few years ago, Fortune magazine identified forensic accounting or fraud examination as one of the fastest growing and most financially rewarding careers. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants recently touted forensic accounting/fraud examination as one of the six fastest growing and most profitable opportunities for accountants.
- There are a number of reasons why accurate fraud statistics are hard to find. First, it is impossible to know what percentage of fraud perpetrators are actually caught. Are there perfect frauds that are never discovered, or are all frauds eventually exposed? Second, many frauds that are discovered are handled quietly within the victim organizations and are never made public. In many cases, companies merely hide frauds due to public relations concerns and terminate or transfer perpetrators quietly.
- Losses incurred from fraud reduce a firm’s income on a dollar-for-dollar basis, reducing net income by $1 for every dollar that is lost to fraud. To make up for the damage fraud does to net income, a company has to have much more revenue come in. For example, if a company has a profit margin of 10%, to make up for a $1,000,000 fraud, the company would have to have additional revenue of $10,000,000.
- Since confidence is typically needed for fraud to occur, people who are not trusted will not be in a position to commit a fraud.
- While answers may vary, the following is one possible answer: The case of Charles Ponzi involved deception, greed on behalf of the investors and the perpetrator and confidence in the perpetrator. These are traits that are common in many different cases of fraud.
- The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) provides the opportunity for individuals to become a Certified Fraud Examiner or “CFE”. CFEs are considered to be leaders in the antifraud community and have recognition as such throughout the world. They represent the highest standards held by the ACFE and possess expertise in all aspects of the antifraud profession. The CFE designation is acknowledged globally and preferred by many employers. The ACFE states that becoming a CFE immediately sets an individual apart from others and launches him or her to the top of the profession.
- While answers may vary, the following is one possible answer: When an individual becomes a CFE, he or she automatically becomes a member of the ACFE. The ACFE is the world’s largest antifraud organization and the premier provider of antifraud training and education. Together with more than 70,000 members throughout the world, the ACFE works toward the reduction of fraud and corruption around the globe.